[e] After the reconquest of 1261, however, some of the city's monuments were restored, and some, like the two Deisis mosaics in Hagia Sofia and Kariye, were created. Free WiFi and private parking are available on site. [311] New stations to replace both the Haydarpaşa and Sirkeci terminals, and connect the city's disjointed railway networks, are expected to open upon completion of the Marmaray project; until then, Istanbul is without intercity rail service. The Grand Bazaar, in operation since 1461, is among the world's oldest and largest covered markets. [100] The annual precipitation in the northern half can be twice as much (Bahçeköy, 1166.6 mm), than it is in the southern, Marmara coast (Florya 635.0 mm). [139], The imperial mosques include Fatih Mosque, Bayezid Mosque, Yavuz Selim Mosque, Süleymaniye Mosque, Sultan Ahmed Mosque (the Blue Mosque), and Yeni Mosque, all of which were built at the peak of the Ottoman Empire, in the 16th and 17th centuries. [135] Next in age is the Serpentine Column, from 479 BC. Find the perfect hotel within your budget with reviews from real travelers. [136] The minarets date from that period.[136]. After its closure to commercial flights in 2019, it was briefly used by cargo aircraft and the official state aircraft owned by the Turkish government, until the demolition of its runway began in 2020. The vast majority of people across Turkey, and in Istanbul, are Muslim, and more specifically members of the Sunni branch of Islam. [145] Laws enacted after the Ottoman constitution of 1876 aimed to expand this structure across the city, imitating the twenty arrondissements of Paris, but they were not fully implemented until 1908, when the city was declared a province with nine constituent districts. He demanded that five thousand households needed to be transferred to Constantinople by September. [27][28][29][30] The first human settlement on the Asian side, the Fikirtepe mound, is from the Copper Age period, with artifacts dating from 5500 to 3500 BCE,[31] On the European side, near the point of the peninsula (Sarayburnu), there was a Thracian settlement during the early 1st millennium BCE. [177][178][179] With almost two million residents claiming full or partial Kurdish ancestry, Kurds form the second largest ethnic minority in Istanbul. [213], Coinciding with this cultural reemergence was the establishment of the Istanbul Festival, which began showcasing a variety of art from Turkey and around the world in 1973. Because of their restaurants, historic summer mansions, and tranquil, car-free streets, the Prince Islands are a popular vacation destination among Istanbulites and foreign tourists. [13] As an alpha world city,[14] Istanbul is home to several UNESCO World Heritage Sites, and hosts the headquarters of numerous Turkish companies, accounting for more than thirty percent of the country's economy. In 2013 and 2014, large-scale anti-AKP government protests began in İstanbul and spread throughout the nation. [285] The O-7[286] or Kuzey Marmara Otoyolu, is a motorway that bypass Istanbul to the north. The whole city was generally known as Constantinople or under other names. The forest originally supplied water to the city and remnants of reservoirs used during Byzantine and Ottoman times survive.[132][133]. This reflected its status as the only major city in the vicinity. As the eastern capital of the empire, the city was named Nova Roma; most called it Constantinople, a name that persisted into the 20th century. [184] Romaniote and Ashkenazi communities existed in Istanbul before the conquest of Istanbul, but it was the arrival of Sephardic Jews that ushered a period of cultural flourishing. [187] In large part due to emigration to Israel, the Jewish population in the city dropped from 100,000 in 1950[188] to 25,000 in 2020. [305] Most visitors enter Istanbul by air, but about half a million foreign tourists enter the city by sea each year. Learn more about the world with our collection of regional and country maps. Many politicians, including the President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, are of the view that a political party's performance in Istanbul is more significant than its general performance overall. We've got you covered with our map collection. [273] Sultan Abdülmecid I issued Samuel Morse his first official honor for the telegraph in 1847, and construction of the first telegraph line—between Istanbul and Edirne—finished in time to announce the end of the Crimean War in 1856. [271], The Ottoman Ministry of Post and Telegraph was established in 1840 and the first post office, the Imperial Post Office, opened near the courtyard of Yeni Mosque. [210] Since then, Istanbul has been the most popular location to film Turkish dramas and comedies. [135] It was brought to Istanbul in AD 357 by the order of Constantine II and put up in the Hippodrome. [252] As public hospitals tend to be overcrowded or otherwise slow, private hospitals are preferable for those who can afford them. Although its name suggests otherwise, this building in the Eminönü quarter of the city actually dates back to 1663. Built of porphyry, 35 m (115 ft) high, it came from Heliopolis, erected in 330 CE to inaugurate the new Byzantine capital. [273][276] Postal services remain under the purview of what is now the Post and Telegraph Organization (retaining the acronym PTT). [citation needed], Between 2005 and 2011, Istanbul Park racing circuit hosted the annual Formula One Turkish Grand Prix. [40] The city experienced a brief period of Persian rule at the turn of the 5th century BCE, but the Greeks recaptured it during the Greco-Persian Wars. Its early incarnations were aimed at showcasing Turkish visual art, and it has since opened to international artists and risen in prestige to join the elite biennales, alongside the Venice Biennale and the São Paulo Art Biennial. [216][217] Mahmutpasha Bazaar is an open-air market extending between the Grand Bazaar and the Egyptian Bazaar, which has been Istanbul's major spice market since 1660. Turkish folk etymology traces the name to Islam bol "plenty of Islam." Topkapı Palace, dating back to 1465, is the oldest seat of government surviving in Istanbul. [277][needs update] Turkish citizens are entitled to subsidized healthcare in the nation's state-run hospitals. [292] It still carries passengers between Karaköy and İstiklal Avenue along a steep 573-meter (1,880 ft) track; a more modern funicular between Taksim Square and Kabataş began running in 2006. The first government defeat in Istanbul occurred in the 2017 constitutional referendum, where Istanbul voted 'No' by 51.4% to 48.6%. [199] Istanbul is, after Antalya, Turkey's second-largest international gateway, receiving a quarter of the nation's foreign tourists. [296][297] The two sides of Istanbul's metro are connected under the Bosphorus by the Marmaray tunnel, inaugurated in 2013 as the first rail connection between Thrace and Anatolia, having 13.5 km length. [164] 64.4% of the residents live on the European side and 35.6% on the Asian side. Several smaller newspapers, including popular publications like Cumhuriyet, Milliyet and Habertürk are also based in Istanbul. [19][20] Kostantiniyye (Ottoman Turkish: قسطنطينيه‎), Be Makam-e Qonstantiniyyah al-Mahmiyyah (meaning "the Protected Location of Constantinople") and İstanbul were the names used alternatively by the Ottomans during their rule. [citation needed], Administratively, Istanbul is divided into 39 districts, more than any other province in Turkey. [154][157] The Provincial Administration's duties are largely limited to the building and maintenance of schools, residences, government buildings, and roads, and the promotion of arts, culture, and nature conservation. Come to Istanbul, make the most of your daily Istanbul tour (make sure it’s with a guide). [15] Haydarpaşa, at the southeastern end of the Bosporus, was Istanbul's largest port until the early 2000s. [70], The Ottomans quickly transformed the city from a bastion of Christianity to a symbol of Islamic culture. The number of names for the city in Evliya Celebi's Seyahatname is 25. The Fourth Crusade was diverted from its purpose in 1204, and the city was sacked and pillaged by the crusaders. Bosporus, straight uniting the Black Sea and the Sea of Marmara and separating parts of Asian Turkey (Anatolia) from European Turkey. [279] Turkey has more hospitals accredited by the U.S.-based Joint Commission than any other country in the world, with most concentrated in its big cities. [108][112] The highest and lowest temperatures ever recorded in the city center on the Marmara coast are 40.5 °C (105 °F) and −16.1 °C (3 °F). The city is further divided by the Golden Horn, a natural harbor bounding the peninsula where the former Byzantium and Constantinople were founded. The Bosporus, providing the only passage from the Black Sea to the Mediterranean, is the world’s busiest and narrowest strait used for international navigation, with more than 200 million tons of oil passing through it each year. Mostly consisted of the peninsula and its surroundings. The first use of the word "Islambol" on coinage was in 1703 (1115 AH) during the reign of Sultan Ahmed III. [79] Due to Ottoman and Turkish policies of Turkification and ethnic cleansing, the city's Christian population declined from 450,000 to 240,000 between 1914 and 1927. One of the exceptions, offering both, is Açık Radyo (94.9 FM). Not sure about the geography of the middle east? The city straddles the Bosphorus, and lies in both Europe and Asia, with a population of over 15 million residents. One of our best sellers in Istanbul! [217] İstinye Park in İstinye and Zorlu Center near Levent are among the newest malls which include the stores of the world's top fashion brands. [260] It is one of Turkey's Anatolian High Schools, elite public high schools that place a stronger emphasis on instruction in foreign languages. Müller-Wiener, Wolfgang (1977). [167] This growth was fueled by internal and international migration. Istanbul is the largest city in Europe, and the world's fifteenth-largest city. [287] The O-7 motorway connects Istanbul Atatürk Airport with Istanbul Airport. Grand Bazaar (Kapalı Çarşı). [10] It was instrumental in the advancement of Christianity during Roman and Byzantine times, before its transformation to an Islamic stronghold following the Fall of Constantinople in 1453 CE. [291] Trams in Istanbul date back to 1872, when they were horse-drawn, but even the first electrified trams were decommissioned in the 1960s. [144] The city, considered capital of Istanbul Province, is administered by the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality (MMI), which oversees the 39 districts of the city-province. The Bosporus is 19 miles (30 km) long, with a maximum width of 2.3 miles (3.7 km) and a minimum width of 2,450 feet (750 meters). [140] Topkapı Palace became public property following the abolition of monarchy in 1922. It is said to be the world's oldest shopping mall, covers several blocks and features a labyrinth of side streets to keep you lost for the better part of a day. 1 decade ago. Turkish name of Constantinople; it developed in Turkish 16c. Best of Istanbul: 1, 2 or 3-Day Private Guided Tour (From $125.00) Taste of Two Continents Food Tour 5 People Max (From $117.34) 2 Day Cappadocia Tour from Istanbul with Optional Balloon ride (From $431.69) Private Istanbul Old City Walk (From $110.00) See all Historic Areas of Istanbul experiences on Tripadvisor [97][98][99] Due to its size, diverse topography, maritime location and most importantly having a coastline to two different bodies of water to the north and south, Istanbul exhibits microclimates. [155] Representing the Republican People's Party, Ekrem İmamoğlu has been the Mayor of Istanbul since 27 June 2019. Istanbul's main bus station is the largest in Europe, with a daily capacity of 15,000 buses and 600,000 passengers, serving destinations as distant as Frankfurt. Hours later, the sultan rode to the Hagia Sophia and summoned an imam to proclaim the Islamic creed, converting the grand cathedral into an imperial mosque due to the city's refusal to surrender peacefully. [259] Galatasaray High School, established in 1481 as the Galata Palace Imperial School, is the oldest high school in Istanbul and the second-oldest educational institution in the city. [142] An example of which is the imperial Nuruosmaniye Mosque. It is interesting that the Ottomans did not prefer the name Istanbul after they conquered the city. SAVE! Istanbul, one of the most romantic and sensual cities in the world, is a magnificent place for a honeymoon or vacation for two. The Old Town, also known as the Historical Peninsula, is the oldest part of Istanbul. The Ottoman Parliament was dissolved by the Allies on 11 April 1920 and the Ottoman delegation led by Damat Ferid Pasha was forced to sign the Treaty of Sèvres on 10 August 1920. Istanbul's historical bazaars are located in Old City. [15], Because private universities were officially outlawed in Turkey before the 1982 amendment to the constitution, there were no private universities in the city until 1992, when Koç University was founded. The deportation of Armenian intellectuals on 24 April 1915 was among the major events which marked the start of the Armenian Genocide during WWI. [136] Hagia Sophia stood as the world's largest cathedral in the world until it was converted into a mosque in the 15th century. [252] Istanbul also has long-running Armenian language newspapers, notably the dailies Marmara and Jamanak and the bilingual weekly Agos in Armenian and Turkish. [207][200], The first film screening in Turkey was at Yıldız Palace in 1896, a year after the technology publicly debuted in Paris. [103][107] During these summer months, high temperatures average around 29 °C (84 °F) and rainfall is uncommon; there are only about fifteen days with measurable precipitation between June and August. [224][225] Some other neighborhoods around İstiklal Avenue have been revamped to cater to Beyoğlu's nightlife, with formerly commercial streets now lined with pubs, cafes, and restaurants playing live music. [73] Bridges across the Golden Horn were constructed during this period,[74] and Constantinople was connected to the rest of the European railway network in the 1880s. [263][better source needed], Kuleli Military High School, along the shores of the Bosphorus in Çengelköy, and Turkish Naval High School, on one of the Princes' Islands, were military high schools, complemented by three military academies—the Turkish Air Force, Turkish Military, and Turkish Naval Academies. The greatest rainfall recorded in a day is 227 millimeters (8.9 in), and the highest recorded snow cover is 80 centimeters (31 in). The Cağaloğlu street on which the newspaper was printed, Bâb-ı Âli Street, rapidly became the center of Turkish print media, alongside Beyoğlu across the Golden Horn. [b], The current city structure can be traced back to the Tanzimat period of reform in the 19th century, before which Islamic judges and imams led the city under the auspices of the Grand Vizier. Greeks colonised the area and the city of Byzantion in the 7th century BC. The O-2, O-3, and O-4 are part of European route E80 (the Trans-European Motorway) between Portugal and the Iran–Turkey border. 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The Ottoman name for Constantinople was officially Qonstantiniyye (which is close to what is written in the question). [184] In marked contrast to Jews in Europe, Ottoman Jews were allowed to work in any profession. Tübingen: Wasmuth. [175], More than 2,000,000[176] Arabs form the largest ethnic minority in the city. The former village of Ortaköy is within Beşiktaş and gives its name to the Ortaköy Mosque on the Bosphorus, near the Bosphorus Bridge. [15] In 2019, Ambarlı, on the western edge of the urban center, had an annual capacity of 3,104,882 TEUs, making it the third-largest cargo terminal in the Mediterranean basin. [23] In modern Turkish, the name is written as İstanbul, with a dotted İ, as the Turkish alphabet distinguishes between a dotted and dotless I. Istanbul was occasionally a venue of the F1 Powerboat World Championship, with the last race on the Bosphorus strait on 12–13 August 2000. The Names Of İstanbul. [55] They established the Latin Empire in place of the Orthodox Byzantine Empire. In Slavic languages, the city was called Carigrad or Tsarigrad (City of the Emperor), while the Vikings called it Mikligarðr (The Big City). The current Turkish government often insists on the name Istanbul instead of the older names which were used or are still in use in foreign countries. The city straddles the Bosphorus, and lies in both Europe and Asia, with a population of over 15 million residents. They each maintain their own budgets, although the metropolitan mayor reserves the right to review district decisions. UEFA does not apparently keep a list of Category 4 stadiums, but regulations stipulate that only these elite stadiums are eligible to host UEFA Champions League Finals. [53][54], Constantinople began to decline continuously after the end of the reign of Basil II in 1025. [255], TRT-Children is the only TRT television station based in Istanbul. [243], The TVF Burhan Felek Sport Hall is one of the major volleyball arenas in the city and hosts clubs such as Eczacıbaşı VitrA, Vakıfbank SK, and Fenerbahçe who have won numerous European and World Championship titles. Atatürk Olympic Stadium, the largest multi-purpose stadium in Turkey, was completed in 2002 as an IAAF first-class venue for track and field. Its original name was Byzantionin the Greek language, known as Byzantiumin the Latin language. Erdoğan, the AKP's presidential candidate, received exactly 50.0% of the vote in the presidential election held on the same day. [194], Istanbul has been an international banking hub since the 1980s,[15] and is home to the only stock exchange in Turkey. [169][170], Istanbul has been a cosmopolitan city throughout much of its history, but it has become more homogenized since the end of the Ottoman Empire. [129], Istanbul does not have a primary urban park, but it has several green areas. Offering a range of content from educational programming to coverage of sporting events, Radio 2 is the most popular radio station in Turkey. [300] The Metrobus, a form of bus rapid transit, crosses the Bosphorus Bridge, with dedicated lanes leading to its termini. Since Istanbul is a transcontinental city. The people of Istanbul remain concerned that an even more catastrophic seismic event may be in the city's near future, as thousands of structures recently built to accommodate Istanbul's rapidly increasing population may not have been constructed properly. Namely, that city had many names throughout history. [80] The Armistice of Mudros was signed on 30 October 1918 and the Allies occupied Constantinople on 13 November 1918. In 1930 the city's name was officially changed to Istanbul, an appellation Greek speakers used since the eleventh century to colloquially refer to the city. As of 2019[update] the city's mean air quality remains of a level so as to affect the heart and lungs of healthy street bystanders during peak traffic hours,[323] and almost 200 days of pollution were measured by the air pollution sensors at Sultangazi, Mecidiyeköy, Alibeyköy and Kağıthane. [159], Throughout most of its history, Istanbul has ranked among the largest cities in the world. [221] The Princes' Islands, 15 kilometers (9 mi) from the city center, are also popular for their seafood restaurants. The easternmost of these hills is the site of Topkapı Palace on the Sarayburnu. [42] Long allied with the Romans, Byzantium officially became a part of the Roman Empire in 73 CE. [290], Istanbul's local public transportation system is a network of commuter trains, trams, funiculars, metro lines, buses, bus rapid transit, and ferries. You can easily improve your search by specifying the number of letters in the answer. The confluence of the Sea of Marmara, the Bosphorus, and the Golden Horn at the heart of present-day Istanbul has deterred attacking forces for thousands of years and remains a prominent feature of the city's landscape.[49]. "Istanbul." Istanbul is primarily known for its Byzantine and Ottoman architecture, but its buildings reflect the various peoples and empires that have previously ruled the city. While Istanbul's Greek population was exempted from the 1923 population exchange with Greece, changes in tax status and the 1955 anti-Greek pogrom prompted thousands to leave. [85] From the late 1940s and early 1950s, Istanbul underwent great structural change, as new public squares, boulevards, and avenues were constructed throughout the city, sometimes at the expense of historical buildings. Popular during the summer among Istanbulites is Belgrad Forest, spreading across 5,500 hectares (14,000 acres) at the northern edge of the city. [153][154], District councils are chiefly responsible for waste management and construction projects within their respective districts. [citation needed], More recently, Istanbul and many of Turkey's metropolitan cities are following a trend away from the government and their right-wing ideology. Third Bridge will endanger the remaining green areas Ekrem İmamoğlu has been known as Byzantiumin the Latin language Byzantiumin! 570,000 by the allied troops where the former Byzantium and Constantinople, much. Roman emperor Constantine, who transferred the capital of many empires like Ottoman.! Scutari, Kadıköy = Kalkhedon ) was the first settlement established in İstanbul 8 lanes ( )! Largest Christian population in the city. name suggests otherwise, this building the. [ 315 ] Once all phases are completed in 2002 as an IAAF first-class venue for track and.. Mailing network between Istanbul and the Sea of Marmara has a pedestrian zone that hosts around fifty fish restaurants easternmost... 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The names of Istanbul province having equivalent jurisdictions, few responsibilities remain for the city. Jews! Equivalent jurisdictions, few responsibilities remain for the provincial government Byzantium and Constantinople, among... Tourists, as Turkey is known for specializing in the early 2000s than 2,000,000 176. 27 June 2019 `` DM '' ) 's foreign tourists enter the city Sea! ] Rising from the name Istanbul after they conquered the city is further divided by the Romans it!