The Brooks Range occupies the central section of the park, running on an east-west line. Trypanosoma spp. They are Alatna, Allakaket, Ambler, Anaktuvuk Pass, Bettles, Evansville, Hughes, Kobuk, Nuiqsut, Shungnak, and Wiseman. [11], Fauna include brown bears, black bears, muskoxen, moose, Dall sheep, timber wolves, wolverines, coyotes, lynxes, marmots, porcupines, river otters, red and Arctic fox species, beavers, snowshoe hares, muskrats, bald eagles, golden eagles, peregrine falcons, ospreys, great horned and northern hawk-owls. The land is home to Alaska Natives who have relied on the land and caribou for 11,000 years. During the 1960s and 1970s, the philosophy of wilderness preservation popularized by Marshall and the Muries combined with the concerns of a largely homegrown Alaskan conservation movement and area residents who wanted to protect their way of life. Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve- Introduction The Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve was established in December 1980 and it is the second-largest park in the USA spread around 8,472,506 acres housing the northern tip of the Rocky Mountains, Endicott and the Schwatka Mountains. Carter's actions held the conservation units in trust while Congress concluded its deliberations, and by 1980, Congress passed the land claims act, creating 106 million acres of new protected lands in Alaska. [11], The boreal forest extends to about 68 degrees north latitude, characterized by black and white spruce mixed with poplar. To hunt and trap in the preserve, a person must have all required lice… [15] About 132 brown bears reside in the park and preserve, based on a density of about one bear per 100 square miles (260 km2). The majority of Gates of the Arctic is designated as national park, in which only subsistence hunting by local rural residents is permitted. Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve lies to the west of the Dalton Highway, centered on the Brooks Range and covering the north and south slopes of the mountains. The northernmost section of the park includes small portions of the Arctic foothills tundra. This huge sanctuary is home to bears and moose and remains much as it was before man set foot there. Gates of the Arctic was established as a national park in 1980. NPS/GAAR Museum Collection. During the 1930s, Marshall returned to Alaska three more times to live in Wiseman and explore the rugged terrain of the Koyukuk watershed and beyond to the continental divide. The park is the northernmost national park in the United States, situated entirely north of the Arctic Circle. Many local residents in communities surrounding the Brooks Range were concerned that this change would be destructive and irreversible. [19], Gates of the Arctic National Park & Preserve, Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act, List of national parks of the United States, "Listing of acreage as of December 31, 2011", "Annual Park Ranking Report for Recreation Visitors", "Hunting - Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve", "Title 36: Parks, Forests, and Public Property", "Gate of the Arctic National Park and Preserve", "Creation of Gates of the Arctic National Park & Preserve", Full list of all state parks, recreation areas and sites, historic parks and sites, and marine parks, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Gates_of_the_Arctic_National_Park_and_Preserve&oldid=992418416, Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve, Short description is different from Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 5 December 2020, at 04:30. The Arctic small tool tradition (ASTt) of about 4,500 BP has also been documented. 101 Dunkel St Courtesy of the Bancroft Library, University of California Berkeley. A detached portion of the park surrounds the outlying Fortress Mountain and Castle Mountain to the north of the park. [12], The park includes much of the central and eastern Brooks Range. They form the largest contiguous wilderness in the United States together. The park straddles the continental divide, separating the drainages of the Pacific and Arctic Oceans. Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve is the second largest national site in the country encompassing approximately 8.5 million acres, which makes it slightly bigger than the whole of Belgium. Take Denali sits below it at third with around 6 million acres. Despite pressure from mining and petroleum developers to create a relatively small park split by a pipeline corridor, the final boundaries drawn for Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve encompassed eight million contiguous acres, stretching nearly two hundred miles from the region surrounding the North Fork of the Koyukuk westward to include the upper reaches of the Kobuk and the Noatak Rivers. The only national park which is larger than Gates of the Arctic is Wrangell-St. Elias National Park, which protects 13.2 million acres. [8], Ten small communities outside the park's boundaries are classified as "resident zone communities" and depend on park resources for food and livelihood. After World War II, military installations, oil and mineral discoveries, and improved aviation technology brought rapid change to the land north of the Arctic Circle. Marshall's writings inspired later wilderness enthusiasts to push for preservation of a vast section of the Brooks Range as Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve. The Gates of the Arctic National Park is a national park in Alaska, which was established in December 1980. One of the biggest In 1968, Secretary of the Interior Stewart Udall urged President Lyndon B. Johnson to use his authority under the Antiquities Act of 1906 to designate Gates of the Arctic and other areas in Alaska as national monuments - a parting conservation gift to the nation during the last days of his administration. [19], Proposals for a national park in the Brooks Range first emerged in the 1960s, and in 1968 a National Park Service survey team recommended the establishment of a 4,100,000-acre (1,700,000 ha) park in the area. The Brooks Range has seen repeated glaciation, with the most recent called the Itkillik glaciation from about 24,000 years ago to roughly 1500 to 1200 years before the present. These early planners attempted to adapt their proposals to the state's plans for an Arctic Transportation Corridor reaching north and south across the Brooks Range. [6] The Arctic Interagency Visitor Center in nearby Coldfoot is open from late May to early September, providing information on the parks, preserves and refuges of the Brooks Range, Yukon Valley and the North Slope. There are 5 ways to get from Denali National Park and Preserve to Gates of the Arctic National Park by bus or plane Select an option below to see step-by-step directions and to compare ticket prices and travel times in Rome2rio's travel planner. The naturalist and author Olaus Murie urged that some vestiges of Alaska's backcountry be saved before industrial progress claimed them. Sport hunting is only permitted in the national preserve. I doubt that my visit to both parks was known to the national parks system. Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve lies to the west of the Dalton Highway, centered on the Brooks Range and covering the north and south slopes of the mountains. Courtesy of Susan Holly. [11], The earliest Inupiat people appeared about 1200 AD at the coast and spread to the Brooks Range, becoming the Nunamiut. There are no roads in Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve. This is a land of multiple complexities and amazing contrasts. The park includes the Endicott Mountains and part of the Schwatka Mountains. In 1980 Congress passed ANILCA, and the monument became Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve on December 2, 1980. Unusual for a U.S. national park, some 1,500 people reside in 10 small communities in the park's Sport hunting is only permitted in the national preserve. To hunt and trap in the preserve, a person must have all required licenses and permits and follow all other state regulations. To the south of the Brooks Range the Ambler-Chandalar Ridge, with associated valleys and lakes, runs east-west. [7], The eastern boundary of the park generally follows the Dalton Highway at a distance of a few miles, with the westernmost part of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge 10 miles (16 km) farther east. In 1933, Marshall published his study of daily life in Wiseman entitled Arctic Village, advertising to the world that he had discovered a kind of arctic utopia. Located above the Arctic Circle is a wilderness wonderland known as the Gates of the Arctic National Park. Because there are no established trails in the Park and Preserve, good maps are extremely important. This park spans 8.5 million acres in size making it the second largest national park in the United States after Wrangell After studying the area's natural and cultural landscapes, the National Park Service identified the central Brooks Range as a parkland candidate. We examined blood smears of 173 rodents and 33 shrews captured at 4 sites in the Gates of the Arctic National Park, northern Alaska, in summer 2002. [11] The Nunamiut people, who had left much of their traditional homelands following a crash in the caribou populations in the early 1900s, resumed a relatively isolated subsistence way of life after returning to the mountains in the late 1930s. This trip was in August as opposed to July. [14] The park is the northernmost range limit for the Dall sheep. He used northern forest research as a pretext for mountain climbing, mapping uncharted waterways, and mingling with the Alaska Native people and gold mining sourdoughs of the Koyukuk. Learn about the geology, trees, mammals, birds, or other plants and wildlife of the area. It extends to the east as far as the Middle Fork of the Koyukuk River, which is paralleled by the Dalton Highway and the Trans-Alaska Pipeline. Why is Gates of the Arctic a National Park? [17] The Gwich'in people, a Northern Athabaskan group also lived in the area in the last 1000 years, moving south of the park in historic times. Gates of the Arctic National Park lies in the Alaska time zone Random Facts About Gates of the Arctic On November 16, 1978, Gates of the Arctic National Monument was … "[18] Marshall spent time in Wiseman during the early 1930s, publishing an account of the place in his 1933 book Arctic Village. Kanuti National Wildlife Refuge is near the park's southeast boundary. The Dalton Highway (Alaska State Highway 11) comes within five miles (8 km) of the park's eastern boundary, but requires a river crossing to reach the park from the road. [11], The park's name dates to 1929, when wilderness activist Bob Marshall, exploring the North Fork of the Koyukuk River, encountered a pair of mountains (Frigid Crags and Boreal Mountain), one on each side of the river. Wilderness advocates were also concerned that oil development might destroy one of the nation's last large wild areas before it could be appreciated by the American people. A late phase of the ASTt from between 2500 and 950 BP, the Ipuitak phase, has been documented in the park at the Bateman Site at Itkillik Lake. Map showing early proposal for Gates of the Arctic National Park boundary (click to enlarge) Bill Brown The National Park Service first began to consider a parkland in the central Brooks Range in the early 1960s, but it was not until 1968 that an NPS team surveyed the area and recommended a 4.1 million-acre, two-unit Gates of the Arctic National Park. During the 1970’s he began hiking, backpacking and camping in the region which, in 1980, was designated Gates of the Arctic National Park. According to the official website, Gates of the Arctic was established in 1980, “to preserve the vast, wild, undeveloped character and environmental integrity of Alaska’s central Brooks Range and to provide opportunities for wilderness recreation and traditional subsistence uses.” The Mesa site at Iteriak Creek has yielded evidence of occupation between 11,500 and 10,300 years before the present. Marshall's quest for happiness led him to the Koyukuk region of the Alaska's Brooks Range where he found adventure and the companionship of local residents. The plant hardiness zone at Anaktuvuk Pass Ranger Station is 2b with an average annual extreme minimum temperature of -42.6 °F (-41.4 °C). Welcome to the Gates of the Arctic National Park Information. The park includes the Endicott Mountainsand part of the Schwatka Mountains. [10] About 259,000 acres (105,000 ha) of the park and preserve are owned by native corporations or the State of Alaska. 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